What is IP routing? How does it work?

December 15, 2022
IP routing: what is it and how it works
IP Routing is a method in which packets of data can be sent along a designated pathway across multiple, different networks. The data packets hop between different routers until the final destination is reached.

IP routing?

Data packets are sent to multiple routers using a routing table. Once received by the next router, the data travels the same path to its final destination.

Each router has its own forwarding table depending on the final router’s IP address and IP data packet header. The packet’s IP address is usually enough to hop between routers. Several routing techniques are needed when data packets bounce between routers and networks.

IP routing


Default gateway is used if the router’s forwarding table can’t discover the following network’s IP address. A default gateway operates as a communication node that can connect to external networks via different tech. Default gateways usually have routes to desired destinations.


Each internet router’s routing table provides all the required information to send data packets to their destination. Data includes:

  • The precise range of IP addresses to which the data has to be transmitted must be specified by a network destination with the required subnet mask designation.
  • The following target router’s IP address.
  • A way for the data packet to leave and move on to the following router.

The meaning of IP route 0.0 0.0

The term “0.0 0.0” has several interpretations, but in the context of IP routing, it denotes a situation in which a data packet lacks information about the subnet to which it should be routed. It often indicates that there are no more distinct distant routers for the data packet to hop through. Finally, a direct connection between the packet and the target network is made.

Routing protocol types

Despite the fact that the TCP/IP network protocol is a standard, not all networks employ the same routing techniques. The protocols used to assist data packets get to the right router are listed below.


The targeted destination and the packet’s original destination are provided by the Internet Protocol.
RIP. LAN and WAN employ the Routing Information Protocol. There are two versions available: RIPv1 and RIPv2. In order to address the shortcomings of the first version, RIPv2 was developed.


Information about internal routing for a single system is transmitted using the intermediate system to intermediate system method.


Between several distinct systems, routing information is transmitted via the Border Gateway Protocol.


Compared to BGP or standard IGRP, the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol is a more effective protocol for conveying router data.


The Open Shortest Path First protocol compiles all router data into one system and builds a topology diagram of the network. A routing table with several destination IP addresses is displayed on the map.

IP route directives that are crucial

For determining a static route for a specified target network, IP route instructions are crucial. The command needs a certain set of identifying information before it can determine the static route. the IP address of the router that has to be hopped across, the name of the interface that is linked to the destination, and any other control settings.

A command for an IP route needs two syntaxes. The local interface and the location of the target network must be specified first. The IP address of the following router that is about to be jumped across is specified using the second syntax. The router makes the assumption that the intended ultimate destination is accessible on the next hop-router by determining the address of the router that has to be crossed. Up until the ultimate destination router is reached, this process is repeated.

Try using the following syntax to indicate the local interface:

route destination network_# [subnet mask] router(config)#

interface to exit

[administrative distance] [permanent]

Try using the following syntax to give the address for the following router to hop along:

route destination network_# [subnet mask] router(config)#

ip address of next hop neighbor

[administrative distance] [permanent]

IP routing 2

Routing over IP in Mesh Networks

All infrastructure nodes in a mesh network, also known as meshnet, are directly connected to one another. This interconnectivity’s objective is to transport data around a network effectively.

A meshnet can redirect web traffic through another device and give you access to remote devices through encrypted tunnels. In essence, you may use a certain device’s online features from the IP address of your choice. For instance, you may redirect data from a laptop or home computer using your phone. You may now use your internet as if you were at home when traveling.

When Meshnet is activated in the FreeZone VPN app, you can connect up to 10 devices, and you can join up to 50 external devices if you have permission from the owners and users of those devices.